On telephone calls between continents that are routed via a geosynchronous satellite, the time between when one person stops speaking and then hears the other person reply is half a second 0. This can cause immense confusion if the other person starts speaking before the first has finished.
Characteristics[ edit ] Italy. Ducal Palace Studiolo Cittern or late citole showing the remains of the citole thumb The vielle a short history, as a hook on the back of the neck, Soundholes drilled in soundboard in a circle, with soundboard rose. Two soundholes in side of instrument.
British Museum Citole formerly Warwick Castle Gitternwith three of the holly-leaf points the shoulders and the trefoil. The citole was carved from a single block of wood and had a separate soundboard glued to the top. Everything else was a single piece of wood that included a neck, the sides, the bottom, shoulder points or arms projecting from the sidesand a knob on the end opposite the neck.
One of the most prominent features of the earlier citoles was a deep neck, so thick that a thumb hole was carved within the neck.
Another feature documented was the back which was not curved into a bowl, nor flat like a modern guitar, but instead it slanting "upwards from each side to a central ridge extended in the neck. The Warwick cithole is not a good example of this because it was modified; it originally had six end-mounted pegs.
Holly-leaf citoles had an outline like a holly leaf, with as many as five corners one at each corner and one at the lower end. A carved example would be from the Strasbourg Cathedral. Carved examples include citoles at the Strasbourg Cathedral. Spade-shaped citoles have a rounded bottom, resembling in sillouette a spade or shovel.
An example of this style is the c. Art with this shape is found primarily in Italy. St Savin citole with 5 stings one separate from the rest and pegs on side. Soundholes in four corners and in the center in place of the large soundhole with rose.
Citole from Queen Mary Psalter c. Single strings and courses[ edit ] Most depictions of the citole in manuscript drawings and sculpture show it strung with four strings. However, some show instruments strung in three, four, or five individual strings.
The British Museum citole originally had pegs for six strings the holes covered up when the instrument was converted to violin and revealed under X-Ray photography. On that instrument the neck isn't wide enough for six individual strings, as strung on a modern guitar.
One possible arrangement for those six strings would be three courses of two strings. At the bottom of the instrument there are variations. The trefoil is an anchor point, and instruments have different ways to anchor to it.
Some clearly show violin style tailpieces tied to it and some citoles have a circle where the tailpiece should be, perhaps a ring to which the strings are fastened or a hole. String materials[ edit ] There have been differences of opinion between researchers concerning wire strings on the citole.
One researcher, Thurston Dart, stated inthat the citole was strung with wire strings. Three decades later another researcher, Ephraim Segerman, considered the issue of wire strings versus metal strings for the citole and came up with a reason why the citole didn't use metal strings: Both instruments show a ring at the instrument's bottom.
The strings go to the rings, but the rings don't appear to be fastened. One ring appears to be a hole. In most citoles, the bridge is shown placed at the bottom of the instrument.
On the Parma citole, it is positioned in the center of the soundboard. Precise details of the bridge are difficult to make out with most illustrations.
The bridge on the Robert de Lisle citole is typical of many of the drawn bridges. Looking at the image is a process of determining: One image that does give three dimensional information is from the Exeter Cathedral citole, done in sculpture.
The strings passed over the sharp corner, which acted as a bridge. Frets[ edit ] Both deep-neck and free-neck citoles are depicted in illustrations with frets. Frets are often shown in pairs two frets to mark one position on the neck.
The number of fret positions varies. One Cantigas de Santa Maria citole has four frets, the others five.I hope you have found this site to be useful. If you have any corrections, additions, or comments, please contact grupobittia.com note that I am not able to respond to all requests.
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The . Vieille-Église is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France. Citole and vielle, working together. Angels with a citole and a vielle (with frets).
From the Prümer Missale, Ms. theol. lat. fol. , folio 33r. A Short History of the Cittern, where part of the paper explained the existence of short lute-like instruments in Central Asia, and mentioned their entry in .
This page is for realistic scientifically plausible slower-than-light communication. For unrealistic science-fictional faster-than-light communication see this page.. This deck contains communication gear, perhaps even with something like a Morse code key for use when radio interference becomes a problem (If this was a Metalunan ship, this is .