Goodwin, Stephen Reinhardt and Ferdinand F.
It was the spring ofand Congress had voted, after some controversy, to insert the phrase into the Pledge of Allegiance, partly as a cold war rejoinder to "godless" communism. We kept stumbling on the words—it's not easy to unlearn something as ingrained and metrical as the Pledge of Allegiance—while we rehearsed for Flag Day, June 14, when the revision would take effect.
Now, nearly five decades later, "under God" is at the center of a legal wrangle that has stirred passions and landed at the door of the U. The case follows a U. Outraged by the ruling, Washington, D. Amid the furor, the judge who wrote the ruling by the Ninth Circuit Court, based in San Francisco, stayed it from being put into effect.
In Aprilafter the Ninth Circuit declined to review its decision, the federal government petitioned the U. Supreme Court to overturn it. In Junethe Court ruled unanimously to keep "under God" in the Pledge. At the core of the issue, scholars say, is a debate over the separation of church and state.
I wonder what the man who composed the original pledge years ago would make of the hubbub. Francis Bellamy was a Baptist minister's son from upstate New York. Educated in public schools, he distinguished himself in oratory at the University of Rochester before following his father to the pulpit, preaching at churches in New York and Boston.
But he was restive in the ministry and, inaccepted a job from one of his Boston congregants, Daniel S.
Ford, principal owner and editor of the Youth's Companion, a family magazine with half a million subscribers. Assigned to the magazine's promotions department, the year-old Bellamy set to work arranging a patriotic program for schools around the country to coincide with opening ceremonies for the Columbian Exposition in Octoberthe th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in the New World.
Bellamy successfully lobbied Congress for a resolution endorsing the school ceremony, and he helped convince President Benjamin Harrison to issue a proclamation declaring a Columbus Day holiday. A key element of the commemorative program was to be a new salute to the flag for schoolchildren to recite in unison.
But as the deadline for writing the salute approached, it remained undone. The idea was in part a response to the Civil War, a crisis of loyalty still fresh in the national memory. As Bellamy sat down at his desk, the opening words—"I pledge allegiance to my flag"—tumbled onto paper.
Then, after two hours of "arduous mental labor," as he described it, he produced a succinct and rhythmic tribute very close to the one we know today: I pledge allegiance to my flag and the Republic for which it stands—one Nation indivisible—with liberty and justice for all.
Bellamy later added the "to" before "the Republic" for better cadence. Millions of schoolchildren nationwide took part in the Columbus Day ceremony, according to the Youth's Companion.
Bellamy said he heard the pledge for the first time that day, October 21, when "4, high school boys in Boston roared it out together. Ina National Flag Conference, presided over by the American Legion and the Daughters of the American Revolution, ordained that "my flag" should be changed to "the flag of the United States," lest immigrant children be unclear just which flag they were saluting.
The following year, the Flag Conference refined the phrase further, adding "of America. By then, the salute had already acquired a powerful institutional role, with some state legislatures obligating public school students to recite it each school day.
But individuals and groups challenged the laws. Notably, Jehovah's Witnesses maintained that reciting the pledge violated their prohibition against venerating a graven image. Inthe Supreme Court ruled in the Witnesses' favor, undergirding the free-speech principle that no schoolchild should be compelled to recite the pledge.
A decade later, following a lobbying campaign by the Knights of Columbus—a Catholic fraternal organization—and others, Congress approved the addition of the words "under God" within the phrase "one nation indivisible. The bill's sponsors, anticipating that the reference to God would be challenged as a breach of the Constitutionally mandated separation of church and state, had argued that the new language wasn't really religious.
The case originated when Michael Newdow, an atheist, claimed that his daughter a minor whose name has not been released was harmed by reciting the pledge at her public school in Elk Grove, California.
If she refused to join in because of the "under God" phrase, the suit argued, she was liable to be branded an outsider and thereby harmed. The appellate court agreed. Complicating the picture, the girl's mother, who has custody of the child, has said she does not oppose her daughter's reciting the pledge; the youngster does so every school day along with her classmates, according to the superintendent of the school district where the child is enrolled.
Proponents of the idea that the pledge's mention of God reflects historical tradition and not religious doctrine include Supreme Court justices past and present. Atheists are not the only ones to take issue with that line of thought.
Advocates of religious tolerance point out that the reference to a single deity might not sit well with followers of some established religions.
After all, Buddhists don't conceive of God as a single discrete entity, Zoroastrians believe in two deities and Hindus believe in many. Both the Ninth Circuit ruling and a number of Supreme Court decisions acknowledge this.Refunds + Exchanges.
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Find great deals on eBay for one nation under god flag. Shop with confidence. President Eisenhower’s One Nation Under God February 7 is a notable historical day for the acknowledgment of God in modern America: it is the day that a sermon was preached before President Dwight D.
Eisenhower, suggesting that the words “under God” be added to the pledge. Find great deals on eBay for one nation under god. Shop with confidence. Pledge of Allegiance (Bellamy versions) (changes are bolded and underlined); (first version) "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.".
Last night my family watched a movie called "One Nation Under God". This very powerful movie is a documentary about four college guys that go around the U.S. and ask people tough questions like "Who do you think Jesus Christ was or is?".