This work was probably compiled by his disciples or disciples of his disciples. It was subsequently edited and shortened by Zhao Qi in the second century C. This version of the text was used by subsequent scholars and is the version available to us nowadays.
Theodicy Again, as with Confucius, so too with Mencius. From late Zhou tradition, Mencius inherited a great many religious sensibilities, including theistic ones. For the early Chinese c. Thus, theistic justifications for conquest and rulership were present very early in Chinese history.
Like Confucius, he says that "Tian does not speak - it simply reveals through deeds and affairs" 5A5. He ascribes the virtues of ren co-humanityyi rightnessli ritual proprietyzhi wisdomand sheng sagehood to Tian 7B24 and explicitly compares the rule of the moral king to the rule of Tian 5A4.
Mencius thus shares with Confucius three assumptions about Tian as an extrahuman, absolute power in the universe: To the extent that Mencius is concerned with justifying the ways of Tian to humanity, he tends to do so without questioning these three assumptions about the nature of Tian, which are rooted deep in the Chinese past, as his views on government, human nature, and self-cultivation will show.
In a dialogue with King Xuan of Qi r. The people are to be valued most, the altars of the grain and the land [traditional symbols of the vitality of the state] next, the ruler least.
Hence winning the favor of the common people you become Emperor…. If after repeated admonishments he still will not listen, they depose him…. Do not think it strange, Your Majesty. Your Majesty asked his servant a question, and his servant dares not fail to answer it directly.
When the king asks whether it is true that various sage kings Tang and Wu rebelled against and murdered their predecessors Jie and ZhouMencius answers that it is true. The king then asks: This is an example of Mencius engaging in the "rectification of names" zhengmingan exercise that Confucius considered to be prior to all other philosophical activity Analects While Mencius endorses a "right of revolution," he is no democrat.
His ideal ruler is the sage-king, such as the legendary Shun, on whose reign both divine sanction and popular approval conferred legitimacy: When he was put in charge of sacrifices, the hundred gods delighted in them which is Heaven accepting him.
When he was put in charge of affairs, the affairs were in order and the people satisfied with him, which is the people accepting him. Heaven gave it [the state] to him; human beings gave it to him. What matters about actions is whether they are moral or not; the question of their benefit or cost is beside the point.
Here, Mencius reveals his antipathy for - and competition with — philosophers who followed Mozi, a fifth-century BCE contemporary of Confucius who propounded a utilitarian theory of value based on li benefit:Mencius, Readings 3.
The Doctrine of the Goodness of Human Nature. I. The “Four Sprouts” Human nature makes no distinction between good and bad, just as water makes no Mencius said, Ask whether he respects his “ uncle or his younger brother more; he’ll say, ‘I respect my uncle.’ Say, ‘When your younger brother is playing.
p. 1. The Ethics of Confucius CHAPTER I WHAT CONSTITUTES THE SUPERIOR MAN.
THE central idea of Confucius is that every normal human being cherishes the aspiration to become a superior man—superior to his fellows, if possible, but surely superior to his own past and present self.
Mencius's emphasis on the innate human moral nature was a rebuttal against the writings of Mo Tzu and early Taoists who did not think human intentions/motives mattered. It was also a rebuttal to the Taoists/Daoists, who did not think worldly matters were worthy of human consideration. Evil exists to glorify the good.
Evil is negative good. It is a relative term. Evil can be transmuted into good. What is evil to one at one time, becomes good at another time to somebody else. 37 -- The Family -- HEXAGRAM NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN – FAMILY. Other titles: Family Life, Clan, Home, Linkage, Dwelling People, The Psyche, "May indicate a situation where the family can and should help."-- D.F.
Legge: For the regulation of The Family, what is most advantageous is that the wife be firm and correct. Wilhelm/Baynes: The Family. The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
Philosophers of the state of nature theory deduce that there must have been a time before organized societies existed, and this presumption.