One problem with meta-analysis is that if studies of questionable quality are included, the overall effect size obtained will be of questionable accuracy. To avoid this problem, two approaches are used. One is to define quality requirements for the inclusion of a study. Nonetheless, that meta-analysis showed that even including all relevant studies resulted in significant effects.
They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. Then the war in which we had refused to believe broke out, and brought—disillusionment.
Not only is it more sanguinary and more destructive than any war of other days, because of the enormously increased perfection of weapons of attack and defense; but it is at least as cruel, as embittered, as implacable as any that has preceded it…When the community has no rebuke to make, there is an end of all suppression of the baser passions, and men perpetrate deeds of cruelty, fraud, treachery and barbarity so incompatible with their civilization that one would have held them to be impossible.
The question of why we fight is a very old one, of course, and many answers have been offered by many thinkers from many perspectives. But there is one I'd like to start with because most of the others end up pointing back to it as both answer and justification. In fact, they must point back to it given the place of war in the history of civilization and centralized power, for without it the need for war becomes highly problematic.
I refer to the quick and simple explanation, "It's our nature. It's like saying that the reason glue works as an adhesive is because it's sticky. I once saw an old dictionary of psychology which defined "human nature" as that to which we appeal when we don't want to look too deeply at a given behavior.
Or, we might add, too deeply into certain inconvenient questions. For example, if war is our nature, why must leaders go to such lengths of bullying, deception, intimidation, and outright lying to drag nations and armies into armed conflict?
Why the elaborate excuses, the repetitive appeals to self-defense? Why all the well-funded propaganda to demonize the current enemy? If war is our nature, why do so many people protest? Sometimes the it's-our-nature argument is modified thus: Freud liked this argument.
As he told Albert Einstein, we will not manage war unless we manage our animal passions, our baser instincts. The reptile brain made me do it. Leaving aside the obvious fact that reptiles don't carry assault rifles, we should suspect this notion immediately for harboring a vested interest, emotional or otherwise.
When Herbert Spencer, coiner of the phrase "survival of the fittest," first came to New York City, he was feted by steel magnate Andrew Carnegie.
Carnegie was delighted that his version of predatory, bare-knuckle capitalism had received what sounded like a scientific justification: It is no accident that politicians and religious leaders who bray the loudest for military interventions tend not to hold a very high opinion of human nature to start with.
It is a short goosestep indeed from an "original sin" to a "master plan" for controlling it. I would mention here a book written and extensively researched by psychoanalyst Erich Fromm: The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness.
In it he goes over the various versions of the instinct theory of aggression, and his conclusion is that it fails to observe any distinctions between the many motivations for violence.
In other words, the violence of a village defending itself against invaders is not psychologically comparable to the violence of arming and dropping nuclear bombs on civilians. The half-naked man who hits you with a club for barging into his hut is motivated differently than the uniformed man who orders the secret, systematic torture of men captured in battle or the destruction of an entire city.[Content warning: Discussion of social justice, discussion of violence, spoilers for Jacqueline Carey books.] [Edit 10/ This post was inspired by a debate with a friend of a friend on Facebook who has since become somewhat famous.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from grupobittia.com Search and browse our historical collection to find news, notices of births, marriages and deaths, sports, comics, and much more.
From Boston Review: Know Thy grupobittia.com’s an attempt to classify and analyze various types of futurism, in much the same way that a Jack Chick tract could be described as “an attempt to classify and analyze various types of religion”.
Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: ‐ Developmental Psychology, 39, – Find this resource.
C) the relation between exposure to TV violence and aggression holds for boys, but not for girls. D) children who are aggressive to begin with prefer violent TV shows.
E) the relation between exposure to TV violence and aggression increases with age.