Comparison of North and South At first glance it seemed that the 23 states that remained in the Union after secession were more than a match for the 11 Southern states. Approximately 21 million people lived in the North, compared with some nine million in the South of whom about four million were slaves. In addition, the North was the site of more thanmanufacturing plants, against 18, south of the Potomac Riverand more than 70 percent of the railroads were in the Union. Furthermore, the Federals had at their command a to-1 superiority in arms production, a 2-to-1 edge in available manpower, and a great preponderance of commercial and financial resources.
Reconstruction and the New South, — Reconstruction, —77 Reconstruction under Abraham Lincoln The original Northern objective in the Civil War was the preservation of the Union—a war aim with which virtually everybody in the free states agreed. As the fighting progressed, the Lincoln government concluded that emancipation of the slaves was necessary in order to secure military victory; and thereafter freedom became a second war aim for the members of the Republican Party.
The more radical members of that party—men like Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens —believed that emancipation would prove a sham unless the government guaranteed the civil and political rights of the freedmen; thus, equality of all citizens before the law became a third war aim for this powerful faction.
The fierce controversies of the Reconstruction era raged over which of these objectives should be insisted upon and how these goals should be secured. After The United States after As the Southern states were subdued, he appointed military governors to supervise their restoration.
The most vigorous and effective of these appointees was Andrew Johnsona War Democrat whose success in reconstituting a loyal government in Tennessee led to his nomination as vice president on the Republican ticket with Lincoln in In December Lincoln announced a general plan for the orderly Reconstruction of the Southern states, promising to recognize the government of any state that pledged to support the Constitution and the Union and to emancipate the slaves if it was backed by at least 10 percent of the number of voters in the presidential election.
Lincoln-Johnson campaign bannerCampaign banner for Republican presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln and running mate Andrew Johnson, lithograph, Library of Congress, Washington, D. The Radicals put forth their own plan of Reconstruction in the Wade—Davis Billwhich Congress passed on July 2, ; it required not 10 percent but a majority of the white male citizens in each Southern state to participate in the reconstruction process, and it insisted upon an oath of past, not just of future, loyalty.
Finding the bill too rigorous and inflexible, Lincoln pocket vetoed it; and the Radicals bitterly denounced him. Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson At first it seemed that Johnson might be able to work more cooperatively with Congress in the process of Reconstruction. A former representative and a former senator, he understood congressmen.
A loyal Unionist who had stood by his country even at the risk of his life when Tennessee seceded, he was certain not to compromise with secession; and his experience as military governor of that state showed him to be politically shrewd and tough toward the slaveholders. Wade assured the new president on the day he took the oath of office.
Newsprint from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, The new president was, first of all, himself a Southerner. He was a Democrat who looked for the restoration of his old party partly as a step toward his own reelection to the presidency in On May 29,Johnson made his policy clear when he issued a general proclamation of pardon and amnesty for most Confederates and authorized the provisional governor of North Carolina to proceed with the reorganization of that state.
Shortly afterward he issued similar proclamations for the other former Confederate states. In each case a state constitutional convention was to be chosen by the voters who pledged future loyalty to the U. The conventions were expected to repeal the ordinances of secession, to repudiate the Confederate debt, and to accept the Thirteenth Amendmentabolishing slavery.Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more.
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Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Seward: Lincoln's Indispensable Man. John Adams.
What our presidents eat is a function family heritage, personal preference, physical condition, and social obligation. John and Abigail Adams were New Englanders who grew up . The 'Great Emancipator' and the Issue of Race. Abraham Lincoln's Program of Black Resettlement. By Robert Morgan. Many Americans think of Abraham Lincoln, .
Offering new and challenging scholarship, insightful analysis, solid research, a wide range of views, this work will inspire remark and debate. Abraham Lincoln’s Presidency and Civil War America is an important addition to an increasing body of study.
A civil war had divided the country between North and South and the Union Army had just lost two major battles. People from his own party were attacking him for his compromising, indecisive attitude.